Octalysis: Complete Gamification Framework


Octalysis: Complete Gamification Framework

(This is the Gamification Framework that I am most known for. Within a year, it was organically translated into 9 different languages and became classic teaching literature in the gamification space worldwide. If you are interested in commercially licensing the framework, please visit our Octalysis Group Licensing Page.)

Gamification is design that places the most emphasis on human motivation in the process. In essence, it is Human-Focused Design (as opposed to “function-focused design”).

Gamification is the craft of deriving all the fun and engaging elements found in games and applying them to real-world or productive activities. This process is what I call “Human-Focused Design,” as opposed to “Function-Focused Design.” It’s a design process that optimizes for human motivation in a system, as opposed to pure efficiency.

Most systems are “function-focused,” designed to get the job done quickly. This is like a factory that assumes its workers will do their jobs because they are required to. However, Human-Focused Design remembers that people in a system have feelings, insecurities, and reasons why they want or do not want to do certain things, and therefore optimizes for their feelings, motivations, and engagement.

The reason we call it gamification is because the gaming industry was the first to master Human-Focused Design.

Games have no other purpose than to please the individual playing them. Yes, there are often “objectives” in games, such as killing a dragon or saving the princess, and sometimes saving a dragon, but those are all excuses to simply keep the player happily entertained.

Since games have spent decades (or even centuries depending on how you qualify a game) learning how to master motivation and engagement, we are now learning from games, and that is why we call it Gamification.

So in the past decade, I have been digging deep into forming a complete framework to analyze and build strategies around the various systems that make a game fun.

I saw that almost every game is fun because it appeals to certain Core Drives within us that motivate us towards certain activities. I also noticed that different types of game techniques push us forward differently: some in an inspiring and empowering way, while some in a manipulative and obsessive manner. I drilled down to find what differentiates one type of motivation to another.

The end result is a gamification framework called Octalysis, which is based on an octagon shape with 8 Core Drives representing each side.

With many years of trials and adjustments, I believe that, besides a ninth hidden Core Drive called “Sensation,” everything you do is based on one or more of these 8 Core Drives below.

The 8 Core Drives of Gamification

1) Epic Meaning & Calling

Epic Meaning & Calling is the Core Drive where a player believes that he is doing something greater than himself or he was “chosen” to do something. A symptom of this is a player that devotes a lot of his time to maintaining a forum or helping to create things for the entire community (think Wikipedia or Open Source projects). This also comes into play when someone has “Beginner’s Luck” – an effect where people believe they have some type of gift that others don’t or believe they were “lucky” to get that amazing sword at the very beginning of the game.

2) Development & Accomplishment

Development & Accomplishment is the internal drive of making progress, developing skills, and eventually overcoming challenges. The word “challenge” here is very important, as a badge or trophy without a challenge is not meaningful at all. This is also the core drive that is the easiest to design for and coincidently is where most of the PBLs: points, badges, leaderboards mostly focus on.

3) Empowerment of Creativity & Feedback

Empowerment of Creativity & Feedback is when users are engaged a creative process where they have to repeatedly figure things out and try different combinations. People not only need ways to express their creativity, but they need to be able to see the results of their creativity, receive feedback, and respond in turn. This is why playing with Legos and painting are fun in-and-of themselves and often become Evergreen Mechanics, where a game-designer no longer needs to continuously add more content to keep the activity fresh and engaging.

4) Ownership & Possession

This is the drive where users are motivated because they feel like they own something. When a player feels ownership, she innately wants to make what she owns better and own even more. Besides being the major core drive for wanting to accumulate wealth, this deals with many virtual goods or virtual currencies within systems. Also, if a person spends a lot of time to customize her profile or her avatar, she automatically feels more ownership towards it too. Finally, this is also the core drive that makes collecting stamps or puzzle pieces fun.

5) Social Influence & Relatedness

This drive incorporates all the social elements that drive people, including: mentorship, acceptance, social responses, companionship, as well as competition and envy. When you see a friend that is amazing at some skill or owns something extraordinary, you become driven to reach the same level. Also, it includes the drive we have to draw closer to people, places, or events that we can relate to. If you see a product that reminds you of your childhood, the sense of nostalgia would likely increase the odds of you buying the product. This Core Drive is relatively well-studied too, as many companies these are days are putting a lot of priority on optimizing their online social strategies.

6) Scarcity & Impatience

This is the drive of wanting something because you can’t have it. Many games have Appointment Dynamics within them (come back 2 hours later to get your reward) – the fact that people can’t get something right now motivates them to think about it all day long. This is the Core Drive utilized by Facebook when it first started: at first it was just for Harvard. Then it opened up to a few other prestigious schools, and eventually all colleges. When it finally opened up to everyone, many people wanted to join because they previously couldn’t get in it.

7) Unpredictability & Curiosity

Generally, this is a harmless drive of wanting to find out what will happen next. If you don’t know what’s going to happen, your brain is engaged and you think about it often. Many people watch movies or read novels because of this drive. However, this drive is also the primary factor behind gambling addiction. Also, this core drive is utilized whenever a company runs a sweepstake or lottery program to engage users. The very controversial Skinner Box experiments, where an animal irrationally presses a lever frequently because of unpredictable results, are exclusively referring to the core drive of Unpredictability & Curiosity, although many have misunderstood it as the driver behind points, badges, and leaderboard mechanics in general.

8) Loss & Avoidance

This core drive is based upon the avoidance of something negative happening. On a small scale, it could be to avoid losing previous work. On a larger scale, it could be to avoid admitting that everything you did up to this point was useless because you are now quitting. Also, opportunities that are fading away have a strong utilization of this Core Drive, because people feel like if they didn’t act immediately, they would lose the opportunity to act forever.

After the 8 Core Drives are determined, I graphed them into an octagon chart.

Gamification Octalysis.003

Left Brain vs Right Brain Drives

Within Octalysis, the Core Drives on the right are considered Right Brain Core Drives, being more related to creativity, self-expression, and social aspects.

The Core Drives on the left are considered Left Brain Core Drives, being more associated to logic, calculations, and ownership.

Note: the Left Brain/Right Brain Core Drives are not considered true brain science; they are merely symbolical as it makes the framework easier and effective when designing. It’s useful dividing things up between the logical and the emotional, and I just named them Left Brain/Right Brain Core Drives so people remember them easily.

Interestingly, Left Brain Core Drives have a tendency of being more based on Extrinsic Motivation – you are motivated because you want to obtain something, whether it be a goal, a good, or anything you cannot obtain; on the other hand, Right Brain Core Drives have a tendency of being based on Intrinsic Motivations: you don’t need a goal or reward to use your creativity, hangout with friends, or feel the suspense of unpredictability – the activity itself is rewarding on its own.

This is important, because many companies aim to design for motivation based on Extrinsic Motivators, such as giving users a reward at the end. However, many studies have shown that once you stop offering the extrinsic motivator, user motivation will often decrease to much lower than before the extrinsic motivator was first introduced.

It’s much better for companies to design experiences that motivate the Right Brain Core Drives, making something in of itself fun and rewarding, so users continuously engage in the activity.

Gamification Octalysis.004

White Hat vs Black Hat Gamification

Another element to note within Octalysis is that the top Core Drives in the octagon are considered very positive motivations, while the bottom Core Drives are considered more negative motivations.

I call techniques that heavily use the top drives “White Hat Gamification” while techniques that utilize the bottom Core Drives are called “Black Hat Gamification”.

If something is engaging because it lets you express your creativity, makes you feel successful through skill mastery, and gives you a higher sense of meaning, it makes users feel very good and powerful.

On the other hand, if you are always doing something because you don’t know what will happen next, you are constantly in fear of losing something, or because there are things you can’t have, even though you would still be extremely motivated to take the actions, it often can leave a bad taste in your mouth.

The problem with Zynga games, according to the Octalysis framework, is that they have figured out how to do many Black Hat Game Techniques, which drive great numbers off each user, but does not make users feel good. So when a user is finally able to leave the system, they will want to, because they don’t feel like they are in control over themselves, just like gambling addiction.

Keep in mind that just because something is Black Hat doesn’t mean it is necessarily bad – these are just motivators – and they can be used for productive and healthy results or malice and manipulative ones. Many people voluntarily submit themselves into Black Hat Gamification in order to go to the gym more often, eat healthily, or avoid hitting the snooze button every morning.

A good Gamification expert will consider all 8 Core Drives on a positive and productive activity so that everyone ends up happier and healthier.

Octalysis Score

Keep in mind that a good gamified system doesn’t need to have all of the Core Drives, but it does need to do really well with the ones it does implement. Some extremely successful products do very, very well with Social Influence, while others just utilize Scarcity.

In order to come up with an Octalysis score, you take how good the subject of analysis is in each core drive, assign a number between 0-10 based on personal judgement, data, and experience flows, and then square that number to get the Core Drive Score. Once you add up all 8 Core Drive Scores, you will get your final Octalysis Score.

Of course, the Score itself is not very useful or actionable, so I always tell my clients to focus on what Core Drive is lacking, instead of being obsessed with their “score.”

How to apply Octalysis to actual systems

Now that we have the framework laid out, the next step is to figure out how to utilize this framework.

Generally, any good and engaging product or system will have at least one of the core drives listed above.

The way to use Octalysis is to identify all the game mechanics that are used to appeal to each Core Drive and list it next to the Core Drive of the Octagon.

Afterwards, based on how strong these game mechanics are, each side of the Octagon will expand or retract.

If a side crosses the inside Octagon, then that side is extremely weak and the Gamification expert needs to improve on that area.

Of course, this is all very abstract, so lets look at a few examples.

A few Gamification examples with Octalysis

Here’s an Octalysis done for a few products online:

Farmville Gamification

Farmville: 414 and generally Left Brain Black Hat.


Diablo 3 Gamification

Diablo 3: 284 and pretty balanced


Facebook Gamification

Facebook: 448 with very strong Right Brain Drives (notice it focuses on opposite ends compared to Farmville)


Twitter Gamification

Twitter: 267 while being pretty balanced but more Right Brain.

Candy Crush Octalysis Score

Candy Crush: Fairly Balanced

And this is just Level 1 Octalysis

10 years of Gamification study and implementation results in a very robust framework that can become actionable towards driving higher user metrics. As people get more and more advanced in Octalysis, they can learn higher levels (up to 5 Levels…there are only a handful of people in the world who know what is level 4 and above), which incorporates much more advanced design principles and in-depth analysis.

Once level 1 is mastered, one can then apply it to Level 2 Octalysis, where we try to optimize experience throughout all four phases of a player’s journey: Discovery (why would people even want to start the journey), Onboarding (how do you teach users the rules and tools to play the game), Scaffolding (the regular journey of repeated actions towards a goal), and Endgame (how do you retain your veterans).

Gamification Octalysis

Factoring in the 4 Phases of a Player’s JourneyGamification Octalysis

Getting a feel about what players feel across the journey.

Once you mastered Level 2 Octalysis, you can then push it one level higher to Level 3 and factor in different player types, so you can begin to see how different types of people are motivated at different stages of the experience.

Gamification Octalysis.019

Pushing up a level further – Factoring Bartle’s Player Type

Gamification Octalysis.020

This way the Gamification Designer can feel out that there’s something for everyone at every stage.

The Octalysis Tool

A learner of Octalysis, Ron Bentata from Israel, kindly made a public Octalysis Tool for me and other Octalysis Enthusiasts. The tool is not 100% refined yet, but it has been a very useful tool for my own clients and many people practicing Octalysis non-commercially. Click here to check out the Octalysis Tool.

The Long Journey to GOOD Gamification

As you can see, creating a rich gamified experience is much more than simply slapping on various game-mechanics to existing products. It’s a craft that requires a lot of analysis, thinking, testing, and adjusting.

While there are 5 Levels in total, Level 1 is usually sufficient for the majority of companies trying to create a better-designed gamified product and experience. Higher Level Octalysis processes are really there for organizations that are truly committed to making sure that they push their metrics in the right direction, while improving longevity of a gamified system. Many games are only popular for 3-8 months, but ones that have good Endgame design can last over decades or even centuries.

If the world adopts good gamification principles and focus on what truly drives fun and motivation, then it is possible to see a day where there is no longer a divide between things people must do and the things they want to do. All people have to do is to play all day. This way, the quality of life for everyone will be significantly higher, companies will perform better because people actually want to do the work, and society overall will become more productive. This is the world that I have dedicated my life to enabling.

For a video walk-through, check out: Episode 4, Gamification Framework Octalysis (The Octalysis Framework)

For a video walk-through of the 8 Core Drives, check out: Episode 3, The 8 Core Drives of a Game


Motivational speach for person who is responsible for your business. I love short and meaningfull speaches: 

Man, you are responsible for money I invested (Core Drive 4 Ownership) here and you know it is all we have (Core Drive 7 Scarcity). This job helps you to achieve your meaningfull goals (core drive 1), and you have freedom of decision making (core drive 3 empowerment) here. Beyond it we learn a lot here by mastering our skills ( core drive 2, acomplishment),  but we can lost it all and people around our company will blame us if we can't reach our targets (Core Drive 8 avoidance and Core Drive 5 Social Pressure). 


Dear Yu-Kai,

it wil be cool to see here World of Warcraft sample and underline its endgame phase. I started to play it for last 45 days and its really amazing and I have feelings it is the best sample from all core drives and prodcut phase perspecives. 


I feel like all these concepts were always there, but so many of us never recognized it because we had nothing to call it. It's so great now that there's a name and place for each of these concepts that gamers and gaming developers are so familiar with. It's actually all in our human nature in a way, but putting it in this format has just clarified it so much. The Octalysis framework is brilliant and it's evident that you put so much research and thinking into making the Core Drives uniquely distinguishable. Thank you for opening a whole new world for me in the way I think about games. Every time I play a game now I question why I like or don't like it and I try to categorize it into the Core Drives. You have changed the way I experience games in a good way. Great stuff. 


I have to write something to make my level up ))), as I read it one month ago and It was coolest thing I have seen before )

Jon Edwards
Jon Edwards

About 15 years ago, I invented a prototypical virtual reality game based on a mash up of: Monopoly, Sim City (version 1), and University of Chicago's Economics department's invention that became Roller Coaster Tycoon. I devised a street grid map of a city, and each student got a city block to develop in any way they chose -- with two basic rules: instigate no crime (as known in modern society), and wealth for development to be generated from real research using -- at the time -- very limited access to Internet and other authentic sources. Whatever was realized -- be it an indoor skate board park retrofitted to an existing building, or a noodle take-away restaurant in an originally designed building -- is expressed in writing, pictures, or real-time "scenarios", and valued in virtual $$$. Yes, we have had more than one billionaire! More importantly, personal and civic growth within the community apparently progresses rapidly, but strangely authentically, along historical lines -- from founding pioneers to thriving societies. I have implemented this game every year since, and without fail, it has engaged the most difficult high school students in considering their skill set, in developing self-identity, in visualizing future college/career futures, and in beginning development of community-mindedness. Some outcomes have launched individuals on bright futures, and saved more than one from abject failure. While playing, students have told me, they now, for the first time, see what school is for, engaging with teachers and subjects that had little use before.

Your work here is certainly right on the money with what I discovered years ago, and am still excitedly experiencing today as a classroom educator. My invention is bare-bones demonstration of your Octalysis, and I congratulate you on your insight. In coming years, I will be looking deeper into your work. I have coined a word -- "virtuality" -- to represent the state of mind of the individual thus engaged with a virtual world and with reality, resulting in assessable progress, be it wealth, education, or self-actualization.



Looks great, cant wait for the book :)


I'm interested in broad application to secondary school students. It seems to me and many of my colleagues that engagement levels for many students have dropped in just the past three or four years, so we are having to re-think motivation.  Indifference is hard to distinguish from ignorance ("Honors" 16 year olds in my California high school ask without shame, "Which one is the Atlantic Ocean?" or "So who did win the Civil War anyway?" ).  The ability to engage and maintain the engagement for 30 to 40 minutes at a time, ignoring distractions, is turning out to be the most important predictor of learning. I'm not so interested in factoid type learning, but the gamers' world creation seems more like what higher level analytic & synthetic learning/thinking require.  I already use two of the tools you include in your 10 Educational applications (eg Dojo, Socrative) but they are very discrete.  Is there a blog/community of people in education who are trying to apply these concepts?


Nice framework with clear influences from Cialdini and other psychologists.


A very good analysis of Gamification and some great insights. Probably the reason you are on the leaderboard of Gamification Guru's...


Pramodh BN


Great Framework!

This is definitely going to be super useful. Thanks!


This is simply brilliant! I find going through the framework is incredibly motivating... I'll have to concede the the rest of the day will be visualising how to apply your framework to our work! Talk about win win! Thanks!


Great work!

I am looking to cite your work in my research paper, is this working included in an academic paper or is it only available here? 

Thanks, Phil. 


#Yu-kai Chou: will you do training workshops on this in Asia before the summer by any chance?


drive 5 name needs to be corrected.. to "social pressure and envy" from "influence and relatedness"

Fabi Ane
Fabi Ane

Hi, I'm writing my Master Thesis about Gamification in Learning Management Systems and want to review and compare some Systems with Octalysis. I'm from Germany so I wonder if there is already a German translation for the Core Drives. Thank's for your help and great framework by the way! ;) Fabi


This should be taken to GSUMMIT in a  workshop mode.. !

Kanav Bakshi
Kanav Bakshi

Hey Yukai,
I am writing a research paper on the 'Scope of Gamification in E-retail' tuned to Indian context. So I plan to review top US and UK e-retail sites with the Octalysis for gamification and later see how the best gamified sites experiences can be captured in India. But i am a little confused on how to score the individual drivers and more importantly like you said that higher score does not mean it's the best so what do i do? 


Hi Yukai, great stuff sir, thanks for sharing your work! I couldn't help asking what there is to say on the case of those drives that fall right on the borderline between left/right brain (meaning & avoidance), and white/black hat gamification analysis (ownership & social pressure)? Would each one be seen on either side of the fence kind'a thing?..

Cheers, Andres S.


@HasanHasanov While World of Warcraft has a very good sample of all core drives, it is hard for a game to them all up throughout all the four phases. 

I have been playing WoW almost ever since it came out, and man the game has evolved so well. The endgame is truly epic, but like many games, it turns towards black hat techniques till the next expansion comes up.

I have submitted an octalysis for World of Warcraft, and I'm hoping to hear back from Yu-kai soon. He may or may not agree with my analysis, but hey, its a huge game with multiple expansions and that makes analyzing a bit complex!

Yu-kai Chou
Yu-kai Chou moderator

@philparker21  Hey, there are a few academics who reached out to me and asked if they could include it in their scholarly work, but I have never followed up to that so not sure...


@achintngm  Well noticed.

Actually @Yu-kai Chouchanged it to Social influence and relatedness, as it much better described the behavioral psychology behind the core drive.

I do however guess that he needs to change it a few other places as well, so thanks for pointing this out! :D


@Fabi Ane  looks interesting.


@Kanav Bakshi  Firstly you should understand all the drives in detail. Then the website you are trying to evaluate should be first matched with all the drives. By doing this you will yourself see the website is strong or heavily using a certain core drive as compared to others.

I use this technique and also along side think if the a particular drive can be made better by some activity. If the drive is already very good and uses most of the things I give it a high score, but if I can pin point something that will make a drive excellent, then I give something like 7 or 8.

For poor drives, i..e the site is not using these elements, I see if white hat gamification is used, or black hat is less. Though Black hat is not good for short run but in the long run you would like to have more of white hat..!

Yu-kai Chou
Yu-kai Chou moderator

@ASA506 Haha, great question Andres. Yes, the ones that are in the middle can go both ways. For examples, in Ownership & Possession, it feels great and empowering when you own stuff or feel ownership, but sometimes your stuff can end up owning you and you become a slave to get more, which does not feel good. Hanging out with friends can be fun and inspiring, but social pressure can also cause a person to want to commit suicide.

Epic Meaning & Calling + Loss & Avoidance also don't have a clear standing in left/right brain or intrinsic/extrinsic, but I would say Core Drive 1 trends to the right, and Core Drive 8 trends to the left.


@Shivcharan @HasanHasanov

Yes a lot of black hat gamification is used, but ultimately it depends on what player type you are in how WoW engages you in the long run. Many players find that Core Drive 5 (not black hat) features like Guild Quests keep them engaged for a long time. If you look at how long WoW had been successful they obviously have doen a great job there, next to excelling in Core Drive 3 to name just one other CD that underpins motivation in the game.

Yu-kai, or me or some other Expert in The Octalysis Group will study your Octalysis analysis with pleasure and interest! Thanks!

Joris Beerda

MD The Octalysis Group


A negative example though, he's posted so was driven to do so, but hasn't actually added anything useful to the conversation. The action was there, but void of meaning.


@FrederikAggeRonex yup..@Yu-kai Chou  clarified as well.. have been playing with drives past 16 hours since morning.. hence cannot recall.. which one is new..  #IamExhausted.. :P

Yu-kai Chou
Yu-kai Chou moderator

Haha yes. It's an example of someone doing hitting the quantitative action, but not necessarily the qualitative goal. But at least I get to meet more people in the community and have had conversation with him in other places :-)


@Kanav Bakshi @achintngm  Cool.. made a slightly small reply, as I was unsure of your reply, if you have more doubts just post it below, I will be happy to explain in detail.